Shimla Agreement Highlights
India had three main objectives in Shimla. First, a lasting solution to the Kashmir issue or, if not, an agreement that would prevent Pakistan from involving third parties in discussions on the future of Kashmir. Second, it was hoped that the agreement would allow a new beginning in relations with Pakistan, based on Pakistan`s acceptance of the new balance of power. Third, it left open the possibility of achieving these two objectives without rushing Pakistan against the wall and without creating a revanchist anti-India regime. In 2001, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited India on 14 and 16 July for a historic two-day summit in Agra at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayeee. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be found. While Kashmir spoke only of “maintaining the line of control,” a clause was added to India`s insistence that the two countries would settle their differences only through “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other peaceful mutually agreed means,” Guha writes. This theoretically excludes third-party mediation in Kashmir. In 2003, Musharraf called for a ceasefire during the LoC.
India accepted its proposal and put into effect on 25 November a ceasefire agreement, the first formal ceasefire since the start of the insurgency in Kashmir. Given the situation that required an agreement between the Indian and Pakistani leaders, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani president was invited to a summit in Simla during the last week of June 1972. The summit was to lead to a peace treaty that was to lead to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners of war after the 1971 war. For pre-and-postiches: has the Simla agreement – origin, impact and results been successful? This agreement is ratified by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and enters into force from the date of exchange of ratification instruments.  (iii) Withdrawals begin with the demins of this agreement and are concluded within thirty days.  At the end of this historic summit, India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, a bilateral agreement and a governance treaty that was to be ratified by the parliaments of both nations in the same year. As mentioned 27 years earlier in the Simla Agreement, the Lahore Declaration notably confirmed the need to resolve the Kashmir issue bilaterally. As part of the agreement, the two nations, India and Pakistan, had agreed to refrain from threats and violence in violation of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir.
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